Biomarkers

What is Heptacarboxyporphyrin? High and low values | Lab results explained

Heptacarboxyporphyrin is a Porphyrin.

Heptacarboxyporphyrin high low meaning treatment symptoms

Porphyrins are precursors of heme and usually only occur in urine in negligible amounts.

However, disorders in heme biosynthesis lead to the syndrome of porphyria with increased formation and excretion of porphyrins. Porphyrias can be hereditary-related or acquired through exogenous influences such as alcohol consumption or lead poisoning. Different enzymes of the heme biosynthesis can be deficient, thus, several different porphyrias can be distinguished. Since these share some common symptoms, chromatographic measurement of the porphyrins is the only way to enable an exact diagnosis.

Porphyrias, which can be inherited or acquired, are often diagnosed with the aid of information regarding the distribution profile of individual porphyrin intermediates in urine. The term “porphyria” is derived from the Greek word porphyria, meaning “purple pigment”.

Porphyrins are particularly well suited as biomarkers for two reasons. First, the pathway is highly active, so any disturbance tends to cause rapid and relatively large accumulations of intermediates. Second, the enzymes of the porphyrin-producing pathway are widely distributed in human tissues and some of them are highly sensitive to the presence of various toxins.

Alterations of porphyrin synthesis that are not due to hereditary or toxic disturbances of porphyrin metabolism are adaptive responses. Such responses caused by alcohol or other drugs may not lead to clinical consequences. However, these disturbances often initiate biochemical and clinical manifestation of genetic porphyrias that previously may have been latent. Once initiated, the symptoms may be long-lasting, especially if the offending toxicant is not identified and removed or avoided. Numerous toxic porphyrias are precipitated by environmental mediators.

Multiple environmental and nutritional factors can cause additive effects. For example, hexachlorobenzene-induced porphyria is accentuated by estrogens and attenuated by vitamin C. The estrogen effect increases the susceptibility of women to porphyrias. Aluminum inhibits some heme synthetic enzymes and has been implicated in causing porphyria in chronic hemodialysis patients, whom are often aluminum overloaded.

Lead intoxication causes signs and symptoms similar to acute intermittent porphyria including abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. However, anemia which is often found with lead intoxication may be absent in lower lead exposures that generate porphyria, indicating that the overall flux through the porphyrin pathway is not strongly reduced even though significant amounts of intermediates are spilled, due to the toxicant effect.

Higher values:

Possible reasons for elevated Heptacarboxyporphyrin levels:

– Environmental Toxin-induced Porphyrinurias (Arsenic, Hexachlorobenzene, Dioxin, Polybrominated biphenyl

– Alcohol (chronic hepatic porphyria – late)

– Inherited factors: Porphyria cutanea tardia (PCT) and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP)

References:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10830610

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15967199

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10787385

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/285c/c5c73b7ce1b39abb1917168934ece917a434.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9114276

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16782144

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11353126

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00039899909602482

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3615245

Disclaimer:

Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.

The information on healthmatters.io is NOT intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice.

 

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: