Biomarkers

What is Gamma Globulin? Function + Interpretation

What is Gamma Globulin?

Gamma Globulin is a major class of immunoglobulins found in the blood, including many of the most common antibodies circulating in the blood.

The gamma globulin band consists of 5 immunoglobulins:

  1. 80% is immunoglobulin G (IgG)
  2. 15% is immunoglobulin A (IgA)
  3. 5% is immunoglobulin M (IgM)
  4. 0.2% is immunoglobulin D (IgD)
  5. A trace is immunoglobulin E (IgE)

In order to remember which immunoglobulins the gamma globulin band consists of, just remember the word: G.A.M.E.D.

Gamma Globulin is a somewhat ambiguous term that still remains in common usage despite attempts to substitute ‘immunoglobulin’ in its place.

What are immunoglobulins?

Immunoglobulins function as antibodies in the immune response.

immunoglobulins gamma globulin.jpg

IgG (fights bacterial & viral infections)

IgA (protects places mucous membranes – mouth, nose, lungs, intestines and saliva and tears)

IgM (first antibody made by the body to fight a new infection)

IgE (responsible for immunity to parasites and allergic reactions)

IgD (scientists are still discovering it’s function – one theory is it signals activation of B Cells in immune response)

gamme globulins immunoglobulins.jpg

Reference Ranges:

IgG:

  • 0-<5 months: 100-334 mg/dL
  • 5-<9 months: 164-588 mg/dL
  • 9-<15 months: 246-904 mg/dL
  • 15-<24 months: 313-1,170 mg/dL
  • 2-<4 years: 295-1,156 mg/dL
  • 4-<7 years: 386-1,470 mg/dL
  • 7-<10 years: 462-1,682 mg/dL
  • 10-<13 years: 503-1,719 mg/dL
  • 13-<16 years: 509-1,580 mg/dL
  • 16-<18 years: 487-1,327 mg/dL
  • > or =18 years: 767-1,590 mg/dL

IgA:

  • 0-<5 months: 7-37 mg/dL
  • 5-<9 months: 16-50 mg/dL
  • 9-<15 months: 27-66 mg/dL
  • 15-<24 months: 36-79 mg/dL
  • 2-<4 years: 27-246 mg/dL
  • 4-<7 years: 29-256 mg/dL
  • 7-<10 years: 34-274 mg/dL
  • 10-<13 years: 42-295 mg/dL
  • 13-<16 years: 52-319 mg/dL
  • 16-<18 years: 60-337 mg/dL
  • > or =18 years: 61-356 mg/dL

IgM:

  • 0-<5 months: 26-122 mg/dL
  • 5-<9 months: 32-132 mg/dL
  • 9-<15 months: 40-143 mg/dL
  • 15-<24 months: 46-152 mg/dL
  • 2-<4 years: 37-184 mg/dL
  • 4-<7 years: 37-224 mg/dL
  • 7-<10 years: 38-251 mg/dL
  • 10-<13 years: 41-255 mg/dL
  • 13-<16 years: 45-244 mg/dL
  • 16-<18 years: 49-201 mg/dL
  • > or =18 years: 37-286 mg/dL

References:

What is a Globulin Test? https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003544.htm

Disclaimer:

The information on healthmatters.io is NOT intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice.

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