What is Fumarate / Fumaric Acid?

Fumarate (together with Succinate and Malate) is used in the body’s metabolic pathway that generates cellular energy – the Citric Acid Cycle. This cycle critically supports organ maintenance and neurological function. Fumarate is also a product of the urea cycle.

citric acid cycle fumarate high low treatment meaning

Much like vitamin D, fumaric acid is formed by the body, in the skin, during exposure to sunlight.

High levels:

Excess urea cycle function can generate high levels of fumarate, because fumaric acid is one of the urea cycle products.

Higher levels of these compounds in urine indicate inefficiencies in energy production.

Possible causes:

  • Impaired metabolism due to low B3
  • May be secondary to high pyruvate or lactate
  • Yeast overgrowth

Additional investigations:

  • Vitamin and Mineral Analysis
  • Comprehensive Urine Elements Analysis
  • Adrenal Hormone Profile
  • Complete Digestive Stool Analysis

Treatment considerations:

  • Consider B3 supplementation, unless secondary to high pyruvate or lactate
  • Rule out/address yeast overgrowth

If α-ketoglutarate is elevated along with succinate, malate, and fumarate, you may need additional CoQ10, a nutrient that enables the body to use oxygen to generate large amounts of energy.

Low levels:

Low levels of Fumarate can indicate a general amino acid insufficiency.


The information on is NOT intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice.

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