Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, one of the most widely investigated MMPs, regulates pathological remodeling processes that involve inflammation and fibrosis in cardiovascular disease. MMP-9 directly degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and activates cytokines and chemokines to regulate tissue remodeling.
MMP-9 is a marker of inflammation, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and mobilization of tissue-bound growth factors and cytokines.
Its expression correlates with abnormal collagen deposition accompanying pancreatic cancer, with lymph node metastasis in breast cancer and with regional vessel invasion by giant cell tumor or bone.
MMP-9 contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous clinical disease states, including rheumatic arthritis, coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, multiple sclerosis, asthma, and cancer. Current research is exploring the role of this enzyme as a potential drug target.
WHAT DOES IT MEAN IF YOUR MMP-9 (MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE-9) RESULT IS TOO HIGH?
A number of studies have associated elevated serum levels of MMP-9 with many chronic inflammatory conditions including the following:
– coronary artery disease (CAD),
– arthritis and metabolic syndrome.
Notably, high levels of MMP-9 have been associated with plaque progression, destability and rupture.
These various effects exaggerate the inflammatory process, promoting atherosclerosis and increasing the risk of atherothrombosis and cardiovascular (CV) events. Thus, MMP-9 has emerged as a novel disease marker as well as a therapeutic target. MMP9, like other MMPs, belongs to a superfamily of zinc containing proteases and has been shown to associate with tumorigenesis.
Overexpression of tissue MMPs has been correlated with progression in many tumour types, and overexpression of MMP9 has been found in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. A significant positive correlation has also been found between tissue MMP9 and the stage of colorectal tumours at diagnosis.
Elevated expression of MMP-9, along with MMP-2 is usually seen in invasive and highly tumorigenic cancers such as colorectal tumors, gastric carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, breast cancer, oral cancer, melanoma, malignant gliomas, chondrosarcoma, gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma.
Levels are also increased in malignant astrocytomas, carcinomatous meningitis, and brain metastases.
Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.
The information on healthmatters.io is NOT intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice.