Biomarkers

What does low Globulin mean?

Introduction:

Globulins are a group of proteins within the blood. They are produced by the liver and the immune system. Albumin makes up more than half of the total protein within the blood, and globulins make up the remainder.

 

Symptoms of low Globulin level:

  • Edema of the limbs and body
  • Increased susceptibility to contracting infectious diseases due to decreased immunity, etc.

What can cause low levels of Globulin?

  • Protein levels in urine are usually negligible. This is because during urine formation, the glomerulus (the filtering unit of the kidney) does not allow the passage of large structures like blood cells and proteins. However, when there is a kidney infection, then the structure of the glomerulus gets destroyed, which leads proteins passing into urine. One suffers from hypoglobulinemia (=Decreased globulin concentration) when the proteins are progressively lost in the urine.
  • Destruction of Red Blood cells. The normal life span of a red blood cell is around 120 days. However, when red blood cells are destroyed in the body before they complete 120 days, then the condition is known as hemolytic anemia. And since blood cells are made up of protein molecules, their destruction and eventual removal from the body leads to deficiency of protein, which manifests in the form of hypoglobulinemia.
  • At times, even the presence of malnutrition diseases, like kwashiorkor and marasmus can lead to low levels of globulin in the body. Celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease can also lead to low levels of globulin in the body.

 

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